adult offenders whom courts place on community supervision generally
in lieu of incarceration.
Parolees include those adults conditionally released to community
supervision whether by parole board decision or by mandatory conditional
release after serving a prison term. They are subject to being returned
to jail or prison for rule violations or other offenses.
• At yearend 2006, over 5 million adult men and women were
under Federal, State, or local probation or parole jurisdiction;
approximately 4,237,000 on probation and 798,200 on parole.
• The 1.8% growth in the probation and parole population during
2006 — an increase of 87,852 during the year — was slower
than the average annual increase of 2.2% since 1995.
• At the end of 2006 :-
– Among offenders on probation, about half (49
percent) had been convicted for committing a felony, 49% for a misdemeanor,
and 2% for other infractions. Nearly three-quarters of probationers
were supervised for a non-violent offense, including more than a
quarter for drug law violation and a sixth for driving while intoxicated.
– Nearly all of the offenders on parole (94%)
had been sentenced to incarceration of more than 1 year. About 4
in 10 parolees had served a sentence for a drug offense.
– Women made up about 24% of the nation's probationers
and 12% of the parolees.
– Approximately 55% of the adults on probation
were white, 29% were black, and 13% were Hispanic. Forty-one percent
of parolees were white, 39% black, and 18% were Hispanic.
• Of the 2.2 million probationers who exited supverision during
2006, nearly 6 in 10 completed their full-term sentences or were
released early while about 1 in 5 was reincarcerated.
• Of those adults on parole on January 1, 2006, (665,300)
and those released from prison to parole supervision (485,900) during
2006 from the 46 jurisdictions that provided detailed information,
about 16% were re-incarcerated. This percentage has remained relatively
stable since 1998.
• By the end of 2000, 16 States had abolished parole board
authority for releasing all offenders, and another 4 States had
abolished parole board authority for releasing certain violent offenders.